Chapter 46: Animal Reproduction
 
Chapter Quiz
 

Chapter Quiz


1 .       In general, what is the ploidy (n) state of human cells? (Concept 46.1E-Book) [Hint]

 diploid except for gametes
 haploid except for zygotes
 diploid early in life, becoming haploid with age
 haploid early in life, becoming diploid with age
 diploid in females, haploid in males


2 .       Which of the following is not a description of reproduction involving parthenogenesis? (Concept 46.1E-Book) [Hint]

 Certain members of the social organization of some insects are produced parthenogenetically.
 Sometimes a parthenogenetically produced egg may double in chromosome number to produce a "zygote."
 Males may or may not be present in the population.
 Courtship is absent because only one sex is involved in reproduction.
 Males and females each contribute half of the genetic material for the next generation.


3 .       A hermaphrodite is an animal that _____. (Concept 46.1E-Book) [Hint]

 fuses with one of the opposite sex
 contains both male and female reproductive systems in its body
 can produce zygotes of either sex
 reproduces only asexually
 does all of the above


4 .       Which reproductive method is the most prevalent in mammals? (Concept 46.2E-Book) [Hint]

 fragmentation
 budding
 regeneration
 external fertilization
 internal fertilization


5 .       Which one of the following is an example of a mismatch? (Concept 46.2E-Book) [Hint]

 internal fertilization — terrestrial environment
 courtship behavior — aquatic and terrestrial environments
 seasonal sexual maturity — aquatic and terrestrial environments
 shedding gametes into the environment — terrestrial environments
 eggs released by females to be fertilized by males — aquatic environments


6 .       What is the source of the hormones that, when suddenly absent, are directly responsible for the onset of menstruation? (Concept 46.3E-Book) [Hint]

 hypothalamus
 pituitary
 ovarian follicle
 corpus luteum
 Bartholin's glands


7 .       A large number of hormones function in the human menstrual cycle, but only two of them are called female sex hormones. These are _____. (Concept 46.3E-Book) [Hint]

 follicle-stimulating hormone and estrogen
 follicle-stimulating hormone and progesterone
 follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
 progesterone and estrogen
 gonadotropin-releasing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone


8 .       The ovary undergoes several structural changes or events during the human female's menstrual cycle. Which one of the following sequences is correct, beginning with the oocyte? (Concept 46.3E-Book) [Hint]

 corpus luteum development ... follicle development ... ovulation
 follicle development ... ovulation ... corpus luteum development
 corpus luteum development ... ovulation ... follicle development
 follicle development ... corpus luteum development ... ovulation
 none of the above


9 .       Into which structure is a human oocyte released upon ovulation? (Concept 46.3E-Book) [Hint]

 uterus
 oviduct
 ovary
 abdominal cavity
 cervix


10 .       How do egg cells enter the oviduct after ovulation? (Concept 46.3E-Book) [Hint]

 Follicle contraction squirts them into the oviduct.
 Ciliary currents bring fluid inside, carrying the egg cell along.
 The ovaries are contained within the oviducts.
 Muscular projections of the uterine wall grasp the egg cell and force it into the tube.
 The egg cell actively swims to the tube, using its flagellum.


11 .       Bartholin's gland _____. (Concept 46.3E-Book) [Hint]

 contains spongy tissue that fills with blood during arousal
 secretes progesterone and estrogen to maintain pregnancy
 covers the vagina before sexual intercourse
 secretes lubricating fluid
 produces secretions that contribute to semen


12 .       Where do developing sperm cells undergo meiosis? (Concept 46.3E-Book) [Hint]

 in the epididymis
 in the vas deferens
 in the seminal vesicle
 in the seminiferous tubules
 in the prostate gland


13 .       The _____ is (are) the site of testosterone production in the testis. (Concept 46.3E-Book) [Hint]

 seminiferous tubules
 epididymis
 Leydig cells
 seminal vesicle
 prostate gland


14 .       In many mammals, the testes are located outside the abdominal cavity within the scrotum because _____. (Concept 46.3E-Book) [Hint]

 the elevated pressure within the abdominal cavity would collapse the small passageways within the testes
 this location allows for a shorter pathway to the urethra
 blood flow to the scrotum is not interrupted during erection
 sperm are unable to mature properly at the higher temperatures found within the abdominal cavity
 all of the above


15 .       Which part of the male reproductive tract stores sperm as they mature until they exit from the male's body? (Concept 46.3E-Book) [Hint]

 epididymis
 vas deferens
 glans
 urethra
 seminal vesicle


16 .       Where is one least likely to find complete semen (in which all the components are present)? (Concept 46.3E-Book) [Hint]

 in the vagina of a woman after copulation
 in the epididymis
 prior to the junction of the bulbourethral duct and the urethra
 at the male urethral opening
 in the urethra


17 .       What structure is part of both the excretory and reproductive systems in males? (Concept 46.3E-Book) [Hint]

 ureter
 urethra
 seminal vesicle
 urinary bladder
 vas deferens


18 .       Sperm has several components; the function of the acrosome is to _____. (Concept 46.4E-Book) [Hint]

 produce base to neutralize the acidic environment of the female reproductive system
 metabolize the sugars provided by the semen for energy
 release an enzyme that breaks down the membrane of the ovum
 propel the sperm as they swim through the fluid of the female reproductive tract
 The exact role of the acrosome is unknown.


19 .       Which part of the human sperm carries a haploid set of chromosomes? (Concept 46.4E-Book) [Hint]

 head
 neck
 middle piece
 acrosome
 vitelline layer


20 .       In mammals, meiosis to produce the female egg cell is initiated in the _____. (Concept 46.4E-Book) [Hint]

 ovary
 vagina
 uterus
 oviduct
 cervix


21 .       From a single cell, oogenesis in a mammal will produce _____. (Concept 46.4E-Book) [Hint]

 four ova (eggs)
 four spermatozoa
 an ovum and three polar bodies
 a primary oocyte
 four polar bodies


22 .       In spermatogenesis, each primary spermatocyte gives rise to _____ sperm. (Concept 46.4E-Book) [Hint]

 one
 two
 four
 eight
 millions of


23 .       At what point does the secondary oocyte complete meiosis? (Concept 46.4E-Book) [Hint]

 when the luteinizing hormone triggers ovulation
 after species-specific proteins of sperm and ovum combine
 when the secondary oocyte implants in the endometrium of the uterus
 when the egg is fully surrounded by sperm and semen
 when acrosomal enzymes begin to break down the egg's jelly coat


24 .       The amount of cytoplasm found in an animal egg cell is _____ that found in the polar bodies. (Concept 46.4E-Book) [Hint]

 greater than
 equal to
 less than
 thinner
 none of the above


25 .       Which of the comparisons of oogenesis and spermatogenesis is not accurate? (Concept 46.4E-Book) [Hint]

 Follicle-stimulating hormone promotes both egg and sperm development.
 Luteinizing hormone triggers ovulation in females and androgen production in males.
 Releasing hormone triggers the anterior pituitary to release FSH and LH in both males and females.
 Primary oocytes and primary spermatocytes follow a similar pattern of development through meiosis.
 An ovum is not produced in the absence of sperm, but sperm are produced regardless of what the ova are doing.


26 .       Menstruation results in the discharge of _____. (Concept 46.4E-Book) [Hint]

 the follicle
 the endometrial lining
 the corpus luteum of the uterus
 surface cells from the vagina
 blood from the outer surface of the uterus


27 .       In males, FSH _____. (Concept 46.4E-Book) [Hint]

 is not produced; it is a female hormone
 is directly responsible for facial hair growth beginning at puberty
 is produced by the hypothalamus
 stimulates development of sperm cells in the testes
 stimulates the release of semen by the prostate gland during ejaculation


28 .       Which is a true statement about luteinizing hormone in the female reproductive system? (Concept 46.4E-Book) [Hint]

 It is produced by the hypothalamus.
 It causes mitosis of the primary oocyte.
 It inhibits ovulation.
 It triggers development of endometrium in the corpus luteum.
 It is responsible for mediating the production of estrogen and progesterone simultaneously.


29 .       After ovulation occurs, the empty follicle _____. (Concept 46.4E-Book) [Hint]

 can be recycled to produce more eggs
 changes into the corpus luteum and makes hormones
 quickly degenerates
 immediately initiates menstruation
 becomes the site of the implantation of a fertilized egg


30 .       Concentrations of which hormone stimulate the hypothalamus to increase or decrease hormones that stimulate sperm production in the testes? (Concept 46.4E-Book) [Hint]

 follicle-stimulating hormone
 luteinizing hormone
 testosterone
 releasing hormone
 progesterone


31 .       After the menstrual period, which of the following hormones is the first to increase significantly every 28 days or so, initiating the ovarian cycle? (Concept 46.4E-Book) [Hint]

 progesterone
 follicle-stimulating hormone
 estrogen
 luteinizing hormone
 human chorionic gonadotropin


32 .       On its way to fertilize a human egg, a sperm cell does not have to pass through which of the following? (Concept 46.5E-Book) [Hint]

 oviduct
 vagina
 ovary
 vas deferens
 cervix


33 .       Pregnancy tests detect a hormone in a woman's urine that is present only when an embryo is developing in her uterus. This hormone is secreted by _____. (Concept 46.5E-Book) [Hint]

 the ovary
 the embryo
 a follicle
 the pituitary
 the endometrium


34 .       Which of the following does not describe a function of the placenta? (Concept 46.5E-Book) [Hint]

 providing oxygen to the fetus
 carrying wastes from the fetus to the mother's circulatory system
 secreting hormones that keep the uterine lining from breaking down
 obtaining nutrients from the mother's blood
 All of the above are functions of the placenta.


35 .       Because the genetic composition of the fetus is not identical to that of the mother, it is somewhat surprising that the fetus is not rejected as a foreign body. It appears that this is because _____. (Concept 46.5E-Book) [Hint]

 the embryo does not express paternal antigens on its cells until after birth
 the embryo produces signal molecules that turn off the mother's immune system for the nine months of pregnancy
 a protective layer, the trophoblast, surrounds the embryo and prevents direct contact with maternal tissue
 special maternal immune cells produce antigenic modifier proteins (AMPs), which mask the foreign antigens
 successful pregnancies occur only when the mother and father are genetically similar, and the paternal antigens are not recognized as dissimilar


36 .       Which one of the following is the least effective method of birth control? (Concept 46.5E-Book) [Hint]

 vasectomy
 the pill
 morning after pill
 rhythm method
 condom


37 .       If a woman wants to become pregnant, what is the optimal day on which to have sexual intercourse? (Concept 46.5E-Book) [Hint]

 one week before ovulation
 three days before ovulation
 the day of ovulation, approximately mid-cycle.
 the day before menstruation is due to begin
 one week after ovulation


38 .       Birth control pills contain synthetic estrogen and progesterone. How do these hormones prevent pregnancy? (Concept 46.5E-Book) [Hint]

 They trigger premature ovulation, before an egg is mature.
 They cause the lining of the uterus to be sloughed off.
 They cause the corpus luteum to degenerate.
 They keep the pituitary from secreting FSH and LH, preventing ovulation.
 They prevent the monthly development of the uterine lining.


39 .       A vasectomy is an effective technique for birth control in males because it _____. (Concept 46.5E-Book) [Hint]

 reduces the alkaline secretions in the semen, and the sperm are then destroyed in the female reproductive tract
 causes the prostate gland to enlarge and seal off the ejaculatory duct
 severs the capillaries to the spermatozoa, which then die
 severs the capillaries of the testes and prevents the arrival of pituitary hormone
 severs the route used by the sperm to exit the male's body


40 .       Which of the following most reduces the chances of both conception and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases? (Concept 46.5E-Book) [Hint]

 condom
 birth control pill
 diaphragm
 intrauterine device
 withdrawal







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